nty over Nanhai Zh

nly demanded in the Cairo Decl▓aration in December 1943 that all the territories Japan had stolen from the Chinese shall be restored to

udao had never been

China. In July 1945, China, the United States and the United Kingdom issued the Potsdam Proclamation. That Proclamation explicitly declares in Articl

challenged before the 20

e 8: “The terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out.”28. In August 1945, Japan announced ▓its acceptance

th century. When F

of the Potsdam Proclamation and its u▓nconditional surrender. In November and December 1946, the Chinese government dispatched Co▓lo


  • rance and Japan invaded and illegally occupied by force some islands an▓d reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao in the 1930s and 1940s, the Chinese pe
  • ople rose to fight ▓back strenuously and the Chinese government took a series of measures to defend China’s sovereignty over Nansha Qundao.
  • 24. In 1933, France invaded some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao and declared “occupation” of them in an announcement publi
  • shed in Journ▓al Officiel, creating the “Incident of the Nine Islets”. The French aggression triggered strong reactions and large scale pro
  • tests from all walks of life across China. The Chinese fishermen living on Nansha Qundao also took on-site resistance against the French
  • aggression. Chinese fishermen Fu Hongguang, Ke Jiayu, Zheng Landing and others cut down the posts flying French flags on Taiping Dao, Beizi D


  • ao, Nanwei Dao, Zh▓ongye Dao and others.25. Shortly after this Incident happened, the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs made clear through its spok
  • esperson, ▓referring to the relevant islands of Nansha Qundao, t▓hat “no other people but Chinese fishermen live on the islands and the▓y are rec
  • ognized internationally as Chinese territory”. The Chinese government made strong representations to the French government against its aggression.▓ And in response to the French attempt to trick Chinese fish
  • ermen into hanging French flags, the government of ▓Guangdong Province instructed that administrators of all counties should issue public notice forbiddi
  • ng all Chinese fishing vessels operati
  • ng in Nansha Qundao ▓and relevant waters from

hanging foreign f

nel Lin Zun and other senior military and civil officials to Xisha Qundao and Nansha Qundao to resume exercise of authority over these Islands, with commemorative ceremonies held, sovere

lags, and Chines

ignty markers re-erected, and troops g

arrisoned. These offic▓ials arrived at these islands on four warships, namely Yongxing,▓ Zhongjian, Ta

e national flag

iping and Zhongye. Subsequently, the Chinese government renamed four islands of Xisha Qundao and Nansha Qu

s were distributed

ndao after the names of those four warships.29. In ▓March 1947, the Chinese government established on Taiping Dao Na▓nsha Qundao Office of Administration and placed it under the jurisdiction of Guangdong Province. China also set up a meteorological station and a radio station on Taiping Dao, which started broadcasting meteorological information in June of that year.30. On ▓the basis of a new round of geographical survey of Nanhai Zhudao, the Chinese government commissioned in 1947 the compilation of Nan Hai Zhu Dao Di Li Zhi Lüe (A Brief Account of the Geography of the South China Sea Islands), reviewed and approved Nan Hai Zhu Dao Xin Jiu Ming Cheng Dui Zhao Biao (Comparison Table on the Old and New Names of the South China Sea Islands), and dr▓ew Nan Hai Zhu Dao Wei Zhi Tu (Location Map of the South China Sea Islands) on which the dotted line is marked. In ▓February 1948, the Chinese government officially published Zhong Hua Min Guo Xing Zheng Qu Yu Tu (Map of the Administrative Districts of the Republic of China) inclu▓ding Nan Hai Zhu Dao Wei Zhi Tu (Location Map of the South China Sea Islands).31. In June 194▓9, the Chinese government promulgated Hai Nan Te Qu Xing Zheng Zhang Guan Gong S▓hu Zu Zhi Tiao Li (Regulations on the Organization of the Office of the Chief E▓xecutive of the Hainan Special District), which placed Hainan Dao, Dongsha Qunda▓o, Xisha Qundao, Zhongsha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and some other islands u▓nder the jurisdiction of the Hainan Special District.32. Since its founding on 1 October 1949▓, the People’s Republic of China has repeatedly reiterated and further upheld its sover▓eignty over Nanhai Zhudao and relevant rights and interests in the South China Sea by measures such as adopting legislations, establishing administration and making diplomatic representations. China has never ceased carrying out activities such as patrolling and▓ law enforcement, resources development a

Ge Dao Yu Tu (Map of t

China Sea.33. In August 1951, Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai

he South China Sea Islands

, in his Statement on th▓e United States-British Draft Peace Treaty with Japan and the San Francisco Conference, pointe

of China) in 1935.27. Japan invaded and illegally o

d out that “as a matter of fact, just like all the Nan Sha Islands, Chun▓g Sha Islands and Tung Sha Islands, Si Sha Islands (the Paracel Islands) and Nan We▓i Islan

ccupied Nanhai Zhuda▓o during its war of aggressi

d (Spratly Island) have always been China’s territory, occupied by Japan for some time during the war of aggression waged by Japanese imperialism, t

on against China. The Chinese people fought hero

hey were all taken over by the then Chinese Govern

ically a▓gainst the Japanese aggression

ment, following Japan’s surrender”, “Whether or not the United States-British Draft Trea

. With the advance of the Wo

ty▓ contains provisions on this subject and no matter how these provisions are worded, the inviolable

rld’s Anti-Fascist War and the Chinese Peo

 sovereignty of the People’s Republic of China over Nan Wei Island (Spratly Island) and Si Sha Islands (the Paracel Islands) will not be in any way affected.”34. In September 1958, China promulgated the Declaration of the Govern

ple’s War of Resistance against Ja

ment of the Peop▓le’s Republic of China on China’s Terr

panese Aggressio

itorial Sea, explicitly providing that the breadth of China’s terr

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